Fasting in the Month of Ramadhaan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam and it is Compulsary upon every Muslim, Male and Female who is sane and mature.
The Almighty Allah has promised great reward for those who fast, whilst a severe punishment awaits those who do not fast without a valid reason in the month of Ramadhaan.
Fasting has many physical, moral and social benefits. However, Allah has made fasting compulsary so that we become pious, fearful and conscious of our duties as Muslims.
(O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint.) (Al-Baqarah 2:183)
(O ye who believe! fear Allah as He should be feared, and die not except in a state of Islam.) (Aal `Imran 3:102)
“Every deed of the child of Adam is for him except fasting; it is for Me and I shall reward it. The (bad) breath of the mouth of a fasting person is more pleasing to Allah than the perfume of musk.” (Al-Bukhari)
The purpose of fasting is not to make us hungry and thirsty, or to deprive us some of our comfort and conveniences. The real purpose of fasting is that we learn taqwa. Taqwa is highly emphasized in the Qur’an and Sunnah. There are more than 158 verses in the Qur’an on taqwa, and there are hundreds of ahadiths on this subject. Taqwa is Islam itself. It is the sum total of all Islamic values and virtues. If one has taqwa one has achieved everything. Taqwa is the consciousness of Allah . It is to do one’s best efforts to live by His commands and to avoid His prohibitions. The Qur’an has used the word taqwa to mean consciousness of Allah , fear of Allah , worship of Allah , sincerity in faith, and avoidance of disobedience to Allah etc etc..
Fasting builds the character of taqwa if it is done in the right way. How does fasting build the character of taqwa? Let us look at some of the things that a fasting person is supposed to do, and see how they are related to the concept and spirit of taqwa.
1. Unlike prayers, charity, and pilgrimage, fasting is an invisible act. Only Allah and the person who is fasting know whether he or she is fasting or not. One may quietly eat or drink something and no one will notice and no one can find out. However, the fasting person has made this commitment for the sake of Allah and he or she wants to guard the purity of his or her fast for the sake of Allah . Fasting thus teaches sincerity, and it helps a person learn to live by the principles of his or her faith regardless whether others know or do not know. This is the very purpose and essence of taqwa.
2. Food and sex are two needs and desires that are essential for human survival and growth, but they can become easily corruptive and disruptive if they are not properly controlled and disciplined. Taqwa requires observing the rules of Allah when one eats and when one enjoys sexual relations. Fasting teaches how to control and discipline these desires.
3. The world is full of temptations. It takes a lot of discipline to say “no” to something that is very tempting but not good for us. During fasting we learn how to say “no” to things that are otherwise permissible and good, but are forbidden during fasting. When one learns how to say “no” to that which is generally permissible, then one can easily control oneself to avoid that which is forbidden. This is the spirit of taqwa.
4. People generally care for themselves and their families, but they often ignore the needs of others. Those who have do not even feel the pain and suffering of those who are hungry, homeless, and living in poverty. through fasting, to a certain extent taste the pain and suffering of those who are poor and destitute. Fasting teaches empathy and sympathy, and it takes away some of our selfishness and self-centeredness.
5. When Muslims fast together in the month of Ramadan, it builds an atmosphere of virtues & brotherhood. We come closer to our Creator and we also come closer to each other. Unity, peace, harmony and brotherhood are the fruits of taqwa. In Ramadan we enjoy these fruits as we grow in taqwa.
There are some important things that we should do during Ramadan to take better advantage of this month and to achieve its real purpose, namely, taqwa. These are some reminders and they are all taken from the guidelines given to us in the Qur’an and Sunnah.
1. Niyyah (intention): Remind yourself again and again that you are fasting in obedience to Allah . Be sincere in your intention. You want Allah to accept your fasting. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said:
“Whosoever fasts in Ramadan with faith and seeking Allah's reward, all his past sins will be forgiven.” (Al-Bukhari)
2. Sunnah: Observe the Sunnah in fasting. Take the sahr meal a little before dawn and end your fast at sunset. Observe all the rules of fasting.
3. Wara’ (avoiding everything haram or makruh): Be conscious to have halal food, halal income, halal relations. Avoid watching TV programs, videos, movies, etc., always, but especially during this month. Keep your body and mind very clean. Avoid wasting your time in useless things and pursuits.
4. Qur’an: Spend more time with the Qur’an. Read Qur’an every day. Make it a practice to finish the whole Qur’an monthly in the day to day life and in the month of Ramadan try as much as possible in your own personal reading. Our elders considered this month as the season to collect virtues and it has been reported that some were engaged in reciting to the extent that they could finish one Qur'an in the day and another one in the night. So let us try our maximum. Read some authentic books of Hadith and the books of seerah too.
5. Prayer, supplication, and remembrance of Allah : Pray on time in the masjid with congregation and try to cultivate this practice throughout Ramadhan so that it remains right through in our daily life and observe all Prayers. Do not ignore the Tarawih Prayers. Make more supererogatory prayers. Do as much worship as you can. Do more dhikr (remembrance of Allah ) and du`aa’ (supplication) for yourself and for others. Make tawbah (repentance) and istighfar (request for Allah’s forgiveness) as much as you can. This is the best time for devotion and seeking Allah's forgiveness. Seek the Night of Qadar by special devotion during the last 10 nights of this month.
6. Zakah, charity, and generosity: Be very charitable and generous. Give more and more to help the poor and needy, and to help good social and community projects. Be good to your friends and neighbors also. Let your non-Muslim neighbors and co-workers know that this is your blessed and sacred time.
7. Good behavior and relations with others. Try to be extra kind and courteous during this month. Forget your quarrels and disputes. Reconcile and forgive. Do not get involved in backbiting, lying, cheating and anything that is wrong. Be very good to Muslims and to all human beings.
8. Reflection: Think, reflect, and plan to improve the moral and spiritual condition of your own self and your family. Think about any wrong things and sins you may have been doing and correct yourself. Think about any deficiencies you have in your Islamic observances and plan to change yourself. Think what you can do for the Ummah and for humanity to make this world a better place for everyone.
9. Spending time in the path of Allah: Allah has sent us in the ummah of of the last Prophet whereby a unique responsibility is shouldered upon each member of this ummah. So try to spend some time in the path of Allah acknowledging the responsibility of delivering the message of islam to the nation and calling our muslim betheren to realize the value of eeman and aamaal in succeeding in this world and in the hereafter.
In order to materialize all these, it is of paramount importance to make a schedule or a timetable for each amal and try the best to stick to it at any cost. By virtue of this one could feel the barakath or the divine help in completing plenty of aamaals in a very short time.