بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيْمِ ~
l. Fasting in the month of RAMAZAAN is one of the five pillars of
2. Fasting in the month of RAMAZAAN is FARZ upon every Muslim, male
and female who is sane and mature.
3. Almighty Allah has promised great reward for those that Fast,
whilst severe punishment is in store for those that do NOT fast
in the month of RAMAZAAN.
4. Fasting has many physical, moral and social benefits. However,
Allah has made fasting compulsory so that we become pious, God fearing
and God conscious.
5. Fasting in ISLAM means to stay away from EATING, DRINKING and
COHABITATION from SUBHA SADIQ (early dawn) to sunset with a NIYYAH
of SAUM (fasting).
VIRTUES OF FASTING
1. Hazrat ABU HURAIRAH (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Apostle
of Allah () said: "When RAMAZAAN comes, the doors of Heaven
are opened and the doors of Hell are closed and the devils are put
in chains and the doors of Mercy are opened.
2. The Prophet Muhammad () said: "The fragrance of the mouth
of a fasting person is more pleasant to Allah than the smell of
3. Hazrat SAHL bin SAA'D (رضي الله عنه) reported that Rasoolullah
() said: "In Paradise there are eight doors of which there
is a door named RAYYAAN. None but those that fast will enter it".
4. Hazrat ABU HURAIRAH (رضي الله عنه) reported that Rasoolullah
() said: "Whoever breaks fast on one day of RAMAZAAN without
excuse or illness, his fasting of his whole age will not compensate
5. Hazrat ANAS (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah
() said: "Partake of Sahari before dawn, because in this Sahari
there is Barakat (blessing)".
6. Hazrat ABU HURAIRAH (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger
of Allah () said: "Whoever fasts during Ramadhan with faith
and is hopeful of reward, all his past sins will be forgiven and
whoever stands up in Salaat with faith and is hopeful of reward,
all his past sins will be forgiven, and whoever stands up in Salaat
during the blessed night with faith and is hopeful of reward, all
his past sins will be forgiven".
TYPES OF FAST
There are EIGHT types of SAUM. They are as follows:
1. FARZ MU'AIYYAN:
Fasting for the whole month of RAMAZAAN once a year.
2. FARZ GHAIR MU'AIYYAN:
The duty upon one to keep QAZAA of a SAUM missed in the month of
RAMAZAAN with or without a valid reason.
3. WAAJIB MU'AIYYAN:
To vow to keep a fast on a specific day or date for the sake of
Allah, upon the fulfillment of some wish or desire (NAZAR).
4. WAAJIB GHAIR MU'AIYYAN:
To vow or pledge to Keep a fast without fixing any day or date,
upon the fulfillment of a wish (NAZAR). Those SAUMS which are kept
for breaking one's QASM (oath) also fall under this category.
Those SAUMS which Rasufullah () kept and encouraged others to keep,
e.g., fasting on the 9th and 10th of Muharram, the 9th of Zil-Hijjah
All fasts besides Farz, Waajib and Sunnah are Mustahab, e.g., fasting
on Mondays and Thursdays.
Fasting ONLY on the 9th or 10th of Muharram or fasting ONLY on Saturdays.
8. HARAAM (Prohibited):
It is Haraam to fast on FIVE days during the year. They are Eidul-Fitr,
Eidul-Azha and three days after Eidul-Adza.
THE NIYYAH OR INTENTION
1. The NIYYAH (intention) of fasting is NECESSARY. If a person stays
away from all those things that break one's fast without a NIYYAH,
the fast will NOT be valid.
2. It is NOT necessary to express the NIYYAH verbally as NIYYAH
means to intend. Thus, the intention at heart will suffice. However,
it is better to express the NIYYAH verbally also. The NIYYAH of
بِصَوْمِ غّدٍ نَّوَيْتُ
3. The time for NIYYAH lasts up to midday for Farz MU'AIYYAN, Waajib
MU'AIYYAN, Sunnah or Mustahab fasts. The hours of a day are from
Subha Saadiq to sunset..
4. The NIYYAH for Farz GHAIR MU'AIYYAN and Waajib GHAIR MU'AIYYAN
should be made before Subha Saadiq.
DUA AT THE TIME OF BREAKING FAST
اَللَّهُمَّ لَكَ صُمْتُ وَبِكَ آمَنْتُ وَعَلى رِزْقِكَ اَفْطَرْتُ
MUSTAHABS IN FASTING
1. To partake of SAHARI (the meal before Subha Sadiq)
2. To delay the SAHARI up to a little before Subha Sadiq.
3. To break the fast immediately after sunset.
4. To break one's fast with dry or fresh dates if available. If
dates are NOT available then with water.
5. To make NIYYAH at night.
THINGS MAKROOH WHILE FASTING
1. To chew gum, rubber, plastic items or other such things.
2. To taste any article of food or drink and spit it out. 11F a
woman has a very 01 tempered husband, it is permissible for her
to taste the food, provided it does NOT go down the throat.
3. To collect one's saliva in the mouth and then to swallow it,
trying to quench thirst.
4. To delay a bath that has become FARZ knowingly until after Subha
5. To use paste or tooth powder to clean one's teeth. It is permitted
to clean with a MISWAAK of any fresh branch or root (tooth stick)
6. To complain of hunger and thirst.
7. To take the water too much, up the nostrils when cleaning the
8. To gargle more than necessary.
9. To quarrel, argue, use filthy or indecent words.
10. To backbite, tell a lie and swear etc. are sinful acts even
when one is not fasting. Therefore they become even worse when fasting.
THINGS THAT BREAK ONE'S FAST
Things that break one's fast are of two kinds. Some make only QAZAA
necessary, whilst others make both QAZAA and KAFFAARAH compulsory.
To keep one fast in place of the one that breaks or is broken intentionally.
To keep one fast after another for SIXTY days CONTINUOUSLY. However,
if a person is unable to keep these 60 SAUMS for some valid reason,
e.g., continuous sickness, then one has the option of choosing from
one of the following four:
1. Feed sixty poor people to their fill for two meals, or …
2. Feed one poor person two meals a day, for sixty days, or …
3. Give 60 poor persons 3½ lb. (approx. 1.6 kg. of wheat or its
value in cash or food grains, or…
4. Give to one poor person not less than 3½ lb. of wheat, rice or
food grains etc., to its value or cash, for sixty days.
THINGS THAT BREAK ONE'S FAST BUT MAKE ONLY QAZAA WAAJIB
1. Anything put by force into the mouth of fasting persons.
2. Water goes down the throat whilst gargling, conscious of one's
3. To vomit mouthful intentionally or to return vomit down the throat.
4. Swallowing intentionally a pebble, piece of paper or any item
that is not used as food or medicine.
5. Swallowing something edible, equal to bigger than a grain of
gram which was stuck between the teeth. However if it is first taken
out of the mouth and swallowed, it will break the fast whether it
is smaller or bigger than the size of a gram.
6. Putting oil into the ear.
7. Inhaling snuff into the nostrils.
8. Swallowing the blood from the gums if the colour of the blood
is more than the saliva with which it is mixed.
9. To eat and drink forgetting that one is fasting and thereafter
thinking that the fast is broken, to eat and drink again.
10. To eat and drink after Subha Sadiq or to break the fast before
sunset due to a cloudy sky or a faulty watch etc., and then realising
Note: Any other fast other than a RAMAZAAN one, whether broken
intentionally or with a good and valid reason, makes ONLY QAZAA
WAAJIB. There is NO KAFFAARAH for breaking any fast besides that
THINGS THAT MAKE BOTH QAZAA AND KAFFAARAH WAAJIB
1. Eating, drinking or breaking the fast in any other manner, e.g.,
smoking, etc., without a valid reason, will make both QAZAA and
2. Applying SURMAH into the eye or rubbing oil on the head and then,
thinking that the fast is broken, to eat and drink intentionally.
3. To drink any kind of medicine intentionally.
• (INJECTION is permitted).
THINGS THAT DO NOT BREAK THE FAST
1. To eat or drink something unintentionally.
2. A mosquito, fly or any other object going down the throat unintentionally.
3. Water entering the ears.
4. Dust or dirt going down the throat.
5. Swallowing one's OWN saliva.
6. Taking an injection.
7. Applying of SURMAH (kohl) into the eyes.
8. Taking a bath to keep cool.
9. Rubbing oil onto the body or hair.
10. To vomit unintentionally.
11. Applying ITR or perfume. It is NOT permitted to Inhale the smoke
of LAUBAAN or AGAR BATTI whilst fasting. It is also NOT permitted
to smoke cigarettes or inhale its smoke.
12. Brushing the teeth without tooth paste or powder, e.g., using
a MISWAAK, etc.
13. A dream which makes Ghusl WAAJIB (necessary) does NOT break
PEOPLE EXEMPTED FROM
FASTING IN RAMAZAAN
1. Sick people when their health is likely to be badly affected
by fasting. They should make up the loss, a day for a day, when
they recover after RAMAZAAN.
2. A MUSAAFIR, (one who is undertaking a journey of more than 77
km and does NOT intend staying more than 14 days at his destination).
However, it is better for him to fast in RAMAZAAN than keep QAZAA
later, provided the journey is NOT a tiresome one.
3. If it is feared that hunger or thirst will lead to death, it
is permitted to break one's fast.
4. It is WAAJIB to keep QAZAA of a NAFIL fast that was broken before
FIDYAH FOR FAST
1. A very old person who does NOT have the strength to fast or a
very sickly or diseased person who has NO hope of recovering after
RAMAZAAN, should give FIDYAH for each fast missed in RAMAZAAN.
2. The FIDYAH for a fast is similar to that of a missed Farz or
Waajib Salaat, i.e.:
(1) To give 3½ lb. = approx. 1.6 kg of wheat.
OR … To give 7 lb. = approx. 3.2 kg of barley.
(2) OR … To give the equivalent of the above in cash or kind.
• If, however, an old or sick person gains strength or recovers
after RAMAZAAN, he must keep the missed number of fasts and whatever
was given as FIDYAH will be a reward for him from Allah Ta'ala.
• No one is allowed to fast for another (sick or fit ) person.
Note: Children should be encouraged to fast but should not be
forced to complete the fast up to sunset if they are unable to bear
the hunger or thirst.
I'TIKAAF means to enter the Mosque with the NIYYAH of residing therein.
(MU'TAKIF: One who makes I'TIKAAF).
TYPES OF I'TIKAAF
To Vow or pledge to make I'TIKAAF (on a fixed day) for the sake
of Allah upon the fulfillment of some wish or desire. The least
Duration of a WAAJIB I'TIKAAF is one day and night and it must be
accompanied by a fast.
2. SUNNAT MUAKKIDAH:
To reside the last ten nights and days of RAMAZAAN in the Mosque
is SUNNAT MUAKKIDAH 'ALAL KIFAAYAH, i.e., if a person from the community
fulfills the obligation of I'TIKAAF the entire community will be
absolved of this sacred duty. Otherwise all the residents will be
sinful of neglecting this SUNNAH of our NABl ().
3. MUSTAHAB OR NAFIL:
This I'TIKAAF can be for any amount of time, even for a few minutes.
No fast (SAUM) is conditional for MUSTAHAB or NAFIL I'TIKAAF.
CONDITIONS OF I'TIKAAF
2. Sane: i.e. a person should not be mad.
3. TAHAARAT: To be free from HADAS AKBAR.
4. NIYYAH: Intention.
THINGS PERMITTED DURING I'TIKAAF
l . Eating.
3. Discussing matters of Deen or necessary talk.
• It is MAKROOH to observe complete silence as a form of IBAADAT
ONE IS PERMITTED TO LEAVE THE MOSQUE:
1. For WAAJIB Ghusl.
2. For Wudhu.
3. To answer the call of nature (toilet).
• LEAVING THE Mosque without a valid SHARI'AH reason will nullify
THINGS TO DO' DURING I'TIKAAF
1. A MU'TAKIF should engage himself in IBAADAT.
2. Recital of the Holy Qur'an.
3. NAFIL Salaat and ZIKR.
4. DUROOD and ISTIGHFAAR.
5. Remembrance of Allah Ta'ala.
6. Learn or teach the knowledge of Deen.
I'TIKAAF FOR WOMEN
A woman should perform I'TIKAAF in her home at the place where she
performs her dally Salaat or any suitable place.
NIYYAH FOR NAFIL I'TIKAAF
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيْمِ
نَوَيْتُ الاِعْتِكَافَ للهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مَا دُمْتُ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ
Trans: I intend making I'TIKAAF for Allah till I remain in the Mosque.
• TARAAWIH Salaat is SUNNAT MUAKKIDAH for both, men and women.
• To perform TARAAWIH with JAMAA'AT is SUNNAT KIFAAYAH for men.
• If a person performs TARAAWIH at home whilst it is being performed
at the Mosque, he will NOT be sinful. However, If all the neighbours
perform their TARAAWIH alone at home, then all will be sinful because
of neglecting the JAMAA'AT.
• The time for TARAAWIH is from after Esha Salaat to a little before
Subha Sadiq. It can be performed before and after the WITR Salaat
• If one has missed a few Rak'aat of TARAAWIH and the Imaam has
commenced the WITR, then this MUQTADI may join for the WITR and
complete the remainder of his TARAAWIH thereafter.
• 20 Rak'aat with 10 Salaams are MASNOON, i.e. one should have a
NIYYAH for 2 Rak'aat of TARAAWIH each time. After every four Rak'aat
it is Mustahab to sit a while and take a rest.
• One may remain silent or recite the holy Qur'an or TASBEEH in
a low voice or say NAFIL Salaat separately during the period of
rest after every four Rak'aat.
• It is MAKROOH to perform TARAAWIH sitting if one has the strength
of QIYAAM (standing).
• While performing TARAAWIH some do not join the JAMAA'AT from the
beginning but join the Imaam when he prepares to go into RUKU'.
This is MAKROOH. They should join at the beginning.
• If one does NOT get the JAMAA'AT for Farz, he should perform his
Farz alone and then join the JAMAA'AT for TARAAWIH.
THERE ARE SIX DUTIES IN FAST KNOWS AS SUNNATS
1. To partake of SAHARI or predawn meals.
2. To break fast immediately after sunset.
3. To read TARAAWIH Salaat at night.
4. To feed the poor and hungry.
5. To increase the reading of the Holy Qur'an.
6. To observe I'TIKAAF within the Mosque during the last ten days
DON'TS OF RAMAZAAN
AND AT ALL TIME
1. Don't speak without purpose.
2. Don't be vulgar or rude
3. Don't be irritable.
4. Don't tell lies.
5. Don't t backbite..
6. Don't argue or fight.
7. Don't be boastful and arrogant.
8. Don't swear.
9. Don't eat doubtful food at IFTAAR.
10. Don't look at undesirable things.
11. Don't listen to objectionable speech.
12. Don't gossip.
13. Don't commit any sins.
1 Outline the five pillars of Islam.
2. What does fasting mean to a Muslim?
3. Mention the eight different types of fasts.
4. Explain the first four.
5. When is it: (a) Sunnah, (b) Mustahab, (c) Makrooh, and (d) Haraam
6. What will happen if a person did not make an intention to fast?
7. Mention the time for the NIYYAH.
8. Mention 3 MUSTAHABS in Fasting.
9. Mention 6 acts Makrooh whilst fasting.
10. How many types of things are that break ones fast? Mention and
11. Explain the terms QAZAA and KAFFAARAH.
12. Mention all the items that break ones fast but only make QAZAA
13. If a person Intentionally broke his Sunnah SAUM, will KAFFAARAH
become Waajib? Why?
14. Mention the items that make QAZAA and KAFFAARAH WAAJIB.
15. Mention 7 items that do not break ones Fast.
16. How many types of people are exempted from fasting?
17. Explain the FIDYAH for a Fast.
18. If a sick person, who has already given FIDYAH, recovers from
his illness what should he do?
19. If a person is sick, can another person fast on his behalf?
20. Mention the 3 types of I'TIKAAF.
21. Mention the conditions of I'TIKAAF.
22. Which acts are permitted during I'TIKAAF?
23. What will happen if a person leaves the Mosque without any valid
24. Where should a woman make I'TIKAAF?
25. TARAAWIH Salaat is (Farz, Sunnat Muakkidah, Waajib) for (men
only, women only, both).
26. How should one read the TASBEEH after every four Rak'aat?
27. How is it to perform TARAAWIH seated?
28. Mention 3 virtues of Fasting.
29. Mention 4 Sunnah of Fasting.
30. Mention 7 "Don'ts" of RAMAZAAN.